Gospel Guidebook: Getting and Keeping It Right  한국어    日本語


As stated in my core beliefs, I believe in the Oneness of God (aka Modalistic Monarchianism). In particular, I believe in a strict Monotheism – that God is numerically one. I believe that the one God of the Old Testament, YHVH, became a man in the person of Jesus Christ. Jesus, the Son of God, is both fully God and fully man, being the visible image of the one invisible God. Jesus' deity is none other than that of the Father. As it pertains to His humanity, Jesus was born of a virgin in time.

I don't plan on writing much about Oneness, but I have provided some links below to books, articles, and videos I have found helpful. I have also archived some of the writings of Steven Ritchie from the Wayback Machine. He was a Oneness Pentecostal apologist who passed away in 2022. I found his writings helpful, but his website was suddenly taken down in early 2023. I am not a Pentecostalist, and I strongly object to his teaching on baptismal regeneration (i.e., salvation through water baptism), but he has contributed much to defending Oneness, and I think his writings should be available to people studying this topic.



The Oneness of God by David K. Bernard (This is basically the standard textbook for Oneness theology.)

The Case for Oneness Theology by Steven Ritchie (This ebook was available for $10 on Ritchie's website. I bought it just a few days before his website was suddenly taken down, so the timing might have been providential. This ebook is copyrighted and I provide it for reference purposes only so that Ritchie's work can remain available. If you are interested in purchasing this ebook or a paperback version, please try to contact theglobalimpactministries@gmail.com. As I mentioned above, I don't believe in "baptismal regeneration," so I can't recommend everything in this book, but in terms of Oneness theology, it is very helpful.)

Articles (by me)

One God in Theory, Three Gods in Practice

God Praying to God?

How Many Gods Are There in John 1:1?


approved of God Youtube channel (Pastor R. Euresti Jr. has many good videos on Oneness)

Archive of Steven Richie's articles

Wayback Machine Archive of Steven Ritchie's Website

Oneness Theology (Modalism) Was the Predominant View of the Early Chri

The Shepherd of Hermas, Theology of

TERTULLIAN OF CARTHAGE (190-225), Theology of

Origen of Alexandria (200-253), Theology of


Matt Slick of CARM cited Forged Writings of Ignatius

Ignatius of Antioch, Theology of (Theological view_ Oneness Modalism)

The DIDACHE – Can We Trust It_

Did Modalism Arise From Gnosticism_

Clement of Rome, Theology of (50-97 AD)


The Original Nicene Creed Is Not Trinitarian

Oneness Modalism Influenced The Nicene Creed, Response to Dr. Morrison

The Majority of the Earliest Christians Were Oneness, Response to Dr_

The Theology of the Semi Arians, Response to Dr. Morrison Part 9

The Early Oneness (Modalistic) Christians Were Pentecostals, Response

The Theology of the Montanists, Response to Dr. Morrison Part 7

Did Sabellius Teach Patripassian Sequential Modalism_ Response to Dr_

The Early Roman Church Was Oneness (Modalistic Monarchian), Response t

The Theology of Irenaeus_ Irenaeus Did Not Include The Modalists In Ag

The First Christian To Use The Word Trinity Did Not Include The Holy S

Oneness Modalism, The Popular Belief In Ancient Christian Theology, Re

Trinity vs. Oneness (Modalism) In Church History, Response to Dr. Morr

Oneness vs Unitarian Debate, Response to Unitarian Tom Raddatz Part 4

Response to “Pentecostal Oneness Doctrine Debunked“ Pastor Steven L An

Response to Oneness Pentecostalism Debunked, Pastor Steven Anderson

Does The Form of God Mean A Timeleess Nature_ Response to Dr Dalcour

The Glory Which I Had With You, Response to Dr Dalcour Part 6

Edward Dalcour Misquotes Scripture To Support Trinity, Response Part 5

The Bible Says God Is One Person, Response to Dr Dalcour Part 4

Trinitarian Theologian Distorts Oneness Pentecostal Theology

Trinitarian Theologians Disagree About The Trinity, Response to Dr. Da

Response to Dr. Edward Dalcour on Oneness_Sobre la Unicidad Part 1

Oneness Pentecostal Theology (One God Became One Man)

Does Oneness Apologist Steven Ritchie Advocate a form of Nestorianism_

Response to David Bercot, What the Early Christians Believed About The

Pentecostal Oneness Heresies, Response to John MacArthur

Trinity & Oneness Depends on the Miraculous Nature of God

Did God Talk To Himself In Jesus_

Did God Need Someone To Love To Be Loving_

Do Words in the Hebrew Bible Prove a Plurality of Persons_

Who Is The Lamb of Revelation 5_

How is Jesus the Beginning of the Creation of God, Rev. 3_14

Is Rev. 1_4-5 A greeting from the Trinity_

Does Jude 4-5 Prove A Pre-Incarnate Son_

Does 1 John 5_7 Prove The Trinity_ Johanneum Comma

The Impersonal Word Became Personal, 1 John 1_1-2

Did Jesus Christ Pre-exist His Birth_ 1 Peter 1_11

Jesus Christ The Same Yesterday, Today, And Forever, Hebrews 13_8

A BODY YOU HAVE PREPARED ME - HEB 10_5-7 Psalm 40_6-7

Who Was Melchizedek_

God Became One Man, The Error of Nestorianism

Did Jesus Create All Things as The Father’s Agent_ Heb. 2_7

Sit At My Right Hand, Hebrews 1_13

Jesus Is God Who Became A Man, Hebrews 1_8-12

The Angels Commanded To Worship The Son, Hebrews 1_6

The Son Became Better Than The Angels, Hebrews 1_4

Jesus Is The Reproduced Copy Of The Father, Hebrews 1_3

Whose Word is the Word of God_ Hebrews 1_3

The Predestined Lord of The Universe, Hebrews 1_1-2

“God was manifest in the flesh” or “He was manifest in the flesh”


Most Oneness & Trinitarians Lack Understanding About Christ’s Humanity, 1 Timothy 2_5

The Firstborn of all Creation - Colossians 1_15-18

Jesus Christ In Creation, Colossians 1_15-18

Did Jesus Always Exist in the Form of God_ Philippians 2_5-6-7

Jesus Christ, The Love of God, The Fellowship of the Holy Spirit, 2 Co

How is the Son Subject to the Father in 1 Corinthians 15_24-28_

Did Two Jehovah Persons Create All Things_ 1 Corinthians 8_6

How Can the Holy Spirit Intercede_ Romans 8_26-27

How God Sent His Son Into The World_ Romans 8_3

Christ Is The Spirit In Romans 8

God Purchase The Church with his own Blood, Acts 20_28

Does Christ’s Birth Mean His Resurrection_ Acts 13_33-35

Was The Son Seen As An Angel In The Hebrew Bible_

The Voice of God or Angels_ Acts 7_35-38

The Son of God was Made, Acts 2_36

What Glory Did Jesus Have With The Father_ John 17_5

The Glory of the Son

How Did Jesus Come Into The World_ John 16_28

Jesus Hid His True Identity, John 16_25

The Holy Spirit Speaks What He Hears, John 16_13-15

God Took of Christ’s Human Spirit of Priestly-ness, JOHN 16_13 –15

How Can God Send His Own Holy Spirit, John 15_26

Are there two Advocates or One_ Paraclete – John 14_26

The Holy Spirit is the Spirit of the Father and Son, John 14_23

We Will Make Our Abide In Him, John 14_21-23

Does John 14_26 Support Three Persons of a Trinity_

Isaiah Saw Christ’s Glory, John 12_41

Oneness vs. Trinity, Response to Edward Dalcour, Oneness Theology, Mis

Did Jesus Pre-Exist His Birth_ John 8_58 Ego Eimi

The Testimony of Two, The Father and The Son, John 8_16-18

The Son of Man Ascending, John 6_62, John 3_13

One Divine Will And One Human Will, John 6_38

The Trinitarian Dilemma of Three God Wills, John 6_38

Can God the Father Become His Own Son_ John 5_26

How Could the Son be in Heaven and on Earth at the same time_ John 3_1

Omnipresence And The Incarnation, John 3_13

Only Begotten God or Only Begotten Son, John 1_18


The Meaning of Monogenes in John 1_18

What Was In The Beginning With God_ John 1_1-4, 1 John 1_1-2

Is There a God the Word and a Spoken Word_ John 1_1

No One Is Good Except God, Luke 18_18-19, Mark 10_18

Does Mark 13_32 Disprove the Trinity_ No one knows the day and the hou

WHAT IS BLASPHEMING THE HOLY SPIRIT_ Mark 3_28-30, Matthew 12_31

The Baptism of Christ Demonstrates the Oneness of God, Matthew 3_16-17

When did the Son Come Forth in Micah 5_2_ From Eternity or Antiquity_

Was Jesus An Angel_ Hosea 1_7 Zechariah 2_8-9

Did Daniel See A Pre-Incarnate Son in Daniel 10_

The Son of Man and the Ancient of Days, Daniel 7_13-14

Who Appeared in the Fiery Furnace in Daniel 3_25_

The Angel in His Presence, Isaiah 64_8-14

The Bride of Christ Has One Husband, Isaiah 54_5, 2 Corinthians 11_2

Jesus Has The Attributes of God

Did God Make And Send Jesus Before His Birth_ Isaiah 48_16, Isaiah 45_

The Chosen Servant of Isaiah  43_10-11

Did God Pre-Conceive All Things Before Creation_ Isaiah 41_4

Does the Eternal Father Prove an Eternal Son_ Isaiah 9_6

Are There 3 Holy God Persons of a Trinity_ Revelation 4_8, Isaiah 6_3

Did The Prophets Physically See God_ Isaiah 6_1-3

What Is The Name of His Son, Proverbs 30_4

Christ is Wisdom Personified, Proverbs 8_22-36

The Son In Creation, Proverbs 8_22-30, Colossians 1_15-18, Revelation

Yahweh said to my Lord (adon), Psalm 110_1


Is The Angel of the LORD Omnipresent in Psalm 34_7_

Did Jesus as a Son Actually Speak In The Old Testament_ Psalm 22

Can Angels Pardon Sin_ Exodus 23_21

Did Christ Appear To Abraham As A Pre-Incarnate Son_ Genesis 18-19

Does Echad and Elohim Support the Trinity_

Let Us Make Man, Genesis 1_26-27


Ignatius of Antioch, Theology of

Introduction to the Epistles of 1 And 2 Clement

A Refutation of Unitarian Socinianism and Arianism

The Omniscient Father Became One Paraclete

The Son Had His Beginning By His Begetting

The Father’s Holy Spirit Became The Son

The Father Is The Holy Spirit

Is God One Person or Three Persons_

The Case For Oneness Theology Chapter One