Gospel Guidebook: Getting and Keeping It Right  한국어    日本語


I believe in Modalistic Monarchianism. In particular, I am a strict monotheist who believes that God (i.e., Jehovah) is numerically one in person, possesses aseity, being self-existent, self-attesting (serving as His own criterion for truth), and self-justifying. Since the incarnation, God has revealed Himself in the distinct persons of Father (God as God) and Jesus Christ, the Son of God, (God as man), and has revealed His power and nearness more manifestly since Christ's ascension through the Holy Spirit. God has chosen to reveal Himself in these three modes of being in order to accomplish His eternal purpose in Christ, all for His own glory and name's sake.

Trinitarians have an aversion toward modalism, but the truth is that most Trinitarians (with the exception of social Trinitarians who believe that God has three centers of consciousness) hold modalistic beliefs. Scholars have long recognized that Western Trinitarianism gravitates toward modalism. Modalism has a rich history in the church. For example, the Creed of Nicaea 325 conformed most naturally to modalism (as admitted by Trinitarian scholar Robert Letham). In addition, both Augustine and Jonathan Edwards used illustrations of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit that basically proved modalism. More recently, Karl Barth constantly emphasized that God is unipersonal and exists in "three modes of being." Likewise, Karl Rahner insisted that there is only one subject in God and famously said, "should the doctrine of the Trinity have to be dropped as false, the major part of religious literature could well remain virtually unchanged," indicating that the Trinity doctrine held little significance for the bulk of Christian authors. Barth and Rahner are credited with reviving interest in the Trinity, but both of these men held modalistic Trinitarian beliefs. In the same vein, Trinitarian apologist James White has repeatedly said that 60 to 80% of Trinitarians actually hold modalistic beliefs. Based on this, we can infer that people, including theologians and scholars, instinctively understand and read their Bibles with the comprehension that God is unipersonal and reveals Himself modalistically.

To grasp the truth of Modalistic Monarchianism for yourself, I suggest reflecting on Luke 1:32-35 (especially the use of the future verb tenses and the conjunctive adverb "therefore") in consideration of passages such as Isaiah 42:8 and Isaiah 43:10-11. Also, reflect on how Romans 5:5-11 is in the context of self-sacrifice and how the Apostle Paul tells us that God the Father was emphatically demonstrating "His own love" in Christ as the Son of God. To understand how a Modalistic Monarchian understanding of the nature of God distinguishes between the Father and Son, I recommend the following article by Jason Dulle: The Acknowledgement and Proper Placement of the Distinction Between Father and Son.

Please note that I do not necessarily agree with everything written in the below books and articles. Just like all the other linked content on this website, I provide them solely for reference purposes.

Books and Articles

The Acknowledgement and Proper Placement of the Distinction Between Father and Son by Jason Dulle (original link here)

Jehovah-Jesus: The Oneness of God: The True Trinity by Robert Dodd Weekes (written in 1876)

The Oneness of God by David K. Bernard (This is basically the standard textbook for Oneness theology.)

The Case for Oneness Theology by Steven Ritchie (This ebook was available for $10 on Ritchie's website. I bought it just a few days before his website was suddenly taken down, so the timing might have been providential. This ebook is copyrighted and I provide it for reference purposes only so that Ritchie's work can remain available. If you are interested in purchasing this ebook or a paperback version, please try to contact theglobalimpactministries@gmail.com. I don't believe in "baptismal regeneration," so I can't recommend everything in this book, but in terms of Oneness theology, it find it helpful.)

The Meaning of Charakter in Hebrews 1:3 by Robert P. Terry

Historical Books that Attest to Oneness

Truth Triumphs by Thomas Tomkinson in 1676 (see page 9 onward, especially pages 23-25)

A System of Religion by Thomas Tomkinson in 1729

The Muggletonian Principles Prevailing by Thomas Tomkinson in 1695

Divine Looking Glass by John Reeve and Lodowick Muggleton in 1661 (see pages 41 to 45)

An Introduction To The Early History Of Christian Doctrine by J.F. Bethune-Baker in 1903 (see pages 96 onward)

Notes On The Early History Of The Vulgate Monarchian Prologues by Dom John Chapman in 1908 (see pages 217 onward)

Archive of Joyce Pollard's articles

I have archived some of the writings of Joyce Pollard. Joyce was a Modalistic Monarchian who passed away a few years ago. Her website is still available, but I created this archive as a backup. I spoke to Joyce several years ago by email and can attest to her great desire to understand God and His Word. Many of her opinions are the result of her own personal study. As such, she has some unique ideas that differ from other Modalistic Monarchian believers. Her opinion is worth reading.

A Study Of Spirit

A Study Of The Term Divine Council

A Study Of The Old Testament Titles Of Jesus Christ

A Study Of The Titles Of Jehovah

Can Jesus Christ Be Both Man And God?

Does The Holy Spirit Live In Us?

Firstborn: Was Christ Born Before Anyone Else?

Is God The Father Of All Men?

Jesus Christ Is Both Jehovah And The Manifestation Of Jehovah

Jesus Christ Was Not Forsaken On The Cross

Oneness Theology

Sit Thou At My Right Hand

The Comforter

The Trinity Part One: Is God Three Persons In One

The Trinity Part Two: Elohim

The Trinity Part Three: The Scriptural Evidence That Disproves The Doctrine

The Trinity Part Four: Does Jesus Christ Sit Next To God In Heaven?

Who Is The Angel Of The Lord?

Why Is Elohim Plural?

Archive of Steven Richie's articles

I have archived some of the writings of Steven Ritchie from the Wayback Machine. He was a Oneness Pentecostal apologist who passed away a few years ago. I found his writings helpful, but his website was suddenly taken down in early 2023. I am not a Pentecostalist, and I disagree with his teaching on baptismal regeneration (i.e., salvation through water baptism), but he has contributed much to defending Oneness, and I think his writings should be available to people studying this topic.

Wayback Machine Archive of Steven Ritchie's Website

Oneness Theology (Modalism) Was the Predominant View of the Early Chri

The Shepherd of Hermas, Theology of

TERTULLIAN OF CARTHAGE (190-225), Theology of

Origen of Alexandria (200-253), Theology of


Matt Slick of CARM cited Forged Writings of Ignatius

Ignatius of Antioch, Theology of (Theological view_ Oneness Modalism)

The DIDACHE – Can We Trust It_

Did Modalism Arise From Gnosticism_

Clement of Rome, Theology of (50-97 AD)


The Original Nicene Creed Is Not Trinitarian

Oneness Modalism Influenced The Nicene Creed, Response to Dr. Morrison

The Majority of the Earliest Christians Were Oneness, Response to Dr_

The Theology of the Semi Arians, Response to Dr. Morrison Part 9

The Early Oneness (Modalistic) Christians Were Pentecostals, Response

The Theology of the Montanists, Response to Dr. Morrison Part 7

Did Sabellius Teach Patripassian Sequential Modalism_ Response to Dr_

The Early Roman Church Was Oneness (Modalistic Monarchian), Response t

The Theology of Irenaeus_ Irenaeus Did Not Include The Modalists In Ag

The First Christian To Use The Word Trinity Did Not Include The Holy S

Oneness Modalism, The Popular Belief In Ancient Christian Theology, Re

Trinity vs. Oneness (Modalism) In Church History, Response to Dr. Morr

Oneness vs Unitarian Debate, Response to Unitarian Tom Raddatz Part 4

Response to “Pentecostal Oneness Doctrine Debunked“ Pastor Steven L An

Response to Oneness Pentecostalism Debunked, Pastor Steven Anderson

Does The Form of God Mean A Timeleess Nature_ Response to Dr Dalcour

The Glory Which I Had With You, Response to Dr Dalcour Part 6

Edward Dalcour Misquotes Scripture To Support Trinity, Response Part 5

The Bible Says God Is One Person, Response to Dr Dalcour Part 4

Trinitarian Theologian Distorts Oneness Pentecostal Theology

Trinitarian Theologians Disagree About The Trinity, Response to Dr. Da

Response to Dr. Edward Dalcour on Oneness_Sobre la Unicidad Part 1

Oneness Pentecostal Theology (One God Became One Man)

Does Oneness Apologist Steven Ritchie Advocate a form of Nestorianism_

Response to David Bercot, What the Early Christians Believed About The

Pentecostal Oneness Heresies, Response to John MacArthur

Trinity & Oneness Depends on the Miraculous Nature of God

Did God Talk To Himself In Jesus_

Did God Need Someone To Love To Be Loving_

Do Words in the Hebrew Bible Prove a Plurality of Persons_

Who Is The Lamb of Revelation 5_

How is Jesus the Beginning of the Creation of God, Rev. 3_14

Is Rev. 1_4-5 A greeting from the Trinity_

Does Jude 4-5 Prove A Pre-Incarnate Son_

Does 1 John 5_7 Prove The Trinity_ Johanneum Comma

The Impersonal Word Became Personal, 1 John 1_1-2

Did Jesus Christ Pre-exist His Birth_ 1 Peter 1_11

Jesus Christ The Same Yesterday, Today, And Forever, Hebrews 13_8

A BODY YOU HAVE PREPARED ME - HEB 10_5-7 Psalm 40_6-7

Who Was Melchizedek_

God Became One Man, The Error of Nestorianism

Did Jesus Create All Things as The Father’s Agent_ Heb. 2_7

Sit At My Right Hand, Hebrews 1_13

Jesus Is God Who Became A Man, Hebrews 1_8-12

The Angels Commanded To Worship The Son, Hebrews 1_6

The Son Became Better Than The Angels, Hebrews 1_4

Jesus Is The Reproduced Copy Of The Father, Hebrews 1_3

Whose Word is the Word of God_ Hebrews 1_3

The Predestined Lord of The Universe, Hebrews 1_1-2

“God was manifest in the flesh” or “He was manifest in the flesh”


Most Oneness & Trinitarians Lack Understanding About Christ’s Humanity, 1 Timothy 2_5

The Firstborn of all Creation - Colossians 1_15-18

Jesus Christ In Creation, Colossians 1_15-18

Did Jesus Always Exist in the Form of God_ Philippians 2_5-6-7

Jesus Christ, The Love of God, The Fellowship of the Holy Spirit, 2 Co

How is the Son Subject to the Father in 1 Corinthians 15_24-28_

Did Two Jehovah Persons Create All Things_ 1 Corinthians 8_6

How Can the Holy Spirit Intercede_ Romans 8_26-27

How God Sent His Son Into The World_ Romans 8_3

Christ Is The Spirit In Romans 8

God Purchase The Church with his own Blood, Acts 20_28

Does Christ’s Birth Mean His Resurrection_ Acts 13_33-35

Was The Son Seen As An Angel In The Hebrew Bible_

The Voice of God or Angels_ Acts 7_35-38

The Son of God was Made, Acts 2_36

What Glory Did Jesus Have With The Father_ John 17_5

The Glory of the Son

How Did Jesus Come Into The World_ John 16_28

Jesus Hid His True Identity, John 16_25

The Holy Spirit Speaks What He Hears, John 16_13-15

God Took of Christ’s Human Spirit of Priestly-ness, JOHN 16_13 –15

How Can God Send His Own Holy Spirit, John 15_26

Are there two Advocates or One_ Paraclete – John 14_26

The Holy Spirit is the Spirit of the Father and Son, John 14_23

We Will Make Our Abide In Him, John 14_21-23

Does John 14_26 Support Three Persons of a Trinity_

Isaiah Saw Christ’s Glory, John 12_41

Oneness vs. Trinity, Response to Edward Dalcour, Oneness Theology, Mis

Did Jesus Pre-Exist His Birth_ John 8_58 Ego Eimi

The Testimony of Two, The Father and The Son, John 8_16-18

The Son of Man Ascending, John 6_62, John 3_13

One Divine Will And One Human Will, John 6_38

The Trinitarian Dilemma of Three God Wills, John 6_38

Can God the Father Become His Own Son_ John 5_26

How Could the Son be in Heaven and on Earth at the same time_ John 3_1

Omnipresence And The Incarnation, John 3_13

Only Begotten God or Only Begotten Son, John 1_18


The Meaning of Monogenes in John 1_18

What Was In The Beginning With God_ John 1_1-4, 1 John 1_1-2

Is There a God the Word and a Spoken Word_ John 1_1

No One Is Good Except God, Luke 18_18-19, Mark 10_18

Does Mark 13_32 Disprove the Trinity_ No one knows the day and the hou

WHAT IS BLASPHEMING THE HOLY SPIRIT_ Mark 3_28-30, Matthew 12_31

The Baptism of Christ Demonstrates the Oneness of God, Matthew 3_16-17

When did the Son Come Forth in Micah 5_2_ From Eternity or Antiquity_

Was Jesus An Angel_ Hosea 1_7 Zechariah 2_8-9

Did Daniel See A Pre-Incarnate Son in Daniel 10_

The Son of Man and the Ancient of Days, Daniel 7_13-14

Who Appeared in the Fiery Furnace in Daniel 3_25_

The Angel in His Presence, Isaiah 64_8-14

The Bride of Christ Has One Husband, Isaiah 54_5, 2 Corinthians 11_2

Jesus Has The Attributes of God

Did God Make And Send Jesus Before His Birth_ Isaiah 48_16, Isaiah 45_

The Chosen Servant of Isaiah  43_10-11

Did God Pre-Conceive All Things Before Creation_ Isaiah 41_4

Does the Eternal Father Prove an Eternal Son_ Isaiah 9_6

Are There 3 Holy God Persons of a Trinity_ Revelation 4_8, Isaiah 6_3

Did The Prophets Physically See God_ Isaiah 6_1-3

What Is The Name of His Son, Proverbs 30_4

Christ is Wisdom Personified, Proverbs 8_22-36

The Son In Creation, Proverbs 8_22-30, Colossians 1_15-18, Revelation

Yahweh said to my Lord (adon), Psalm 110_1


Is The Angel of the LORD Omnipresent in Psalm 34_7_

Did Jesus as a Son Actually Speak In The Old Testament_ Psalm 22

Can Angels Pardon Sin_ Exodus 23_21

Did Christ Appear To Abraham As A Pre-Incarnate Son_ Genesis 18-19

Does Echad and Elohim Support the Trinity_

Let Us Make Man, Genesis 1_26-27


Ignatius of Antioch, Theology of

Introduction to the Epistles of 1 And 2 Clement

A Refutation of Unitarian Socinianism and Arianism

The Omniscient Father Became One Paraclete

The Son Had His Beginning By His Begetting

The Father’s Holy Spirit Became The Son

The Father Is The Holy Spirit

Is God One Person or Three Persons_

The Case For Oneness Theology Chapter One