Gospel Guidebook: Getting and Keeping It Right 한국어日本語
I believe in modalistic monarchianism. In particular, I am a strict monotheist who believes that God (i.e., Jehovah) is numerically one in person, possesses aseity, being self-existent, self-attesting (serving as His own criterion for truth), and self-justifying, and reveals Himself and interacts with His creation in the three modes of Father (Creator), Son (Redeemer), and Holy Spirit (Regenerator) in order to accomplish His purposes in His creation all for His own glory and name's sake.
Trinitarians have an aversion toward modalism, but the truth is that most Trinitarians (with the exception of social Trinitarians who believe that God has three centers of consciousness) hold modalistic beliefs. Scholars have long recognized that Western Trinitarianism gravitates toward modalism. Modalism has a rich history in the church. For example, the Creed of Nicaea 325 conformed most naturally to modalism (as admitted by Trinitarian scholar Robert Letham). In addition, both Augustine and Jonathan Edwards used illustrations of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit that basically proved modalism. More recently, Karl Barth constantly emphasized that God is unipersonal and exists in "three modes of being." Likewise, Karl Rahner insisted that there is only one subject in God and famously said, "should the doctrine of the Trinity have to be dropped as false, the major part of religious literature could well remain virtually unchanged," indicating that the Trinity doctrine held little significance for the bulk of Christian authors. Barth and Rahner are credited with reviving interest in the Trinity, but both of these men held modalistic Trinitarian beliefs. In the same vein, Trinitarian apologist James White has repeatedly said that 60 to 80% of Trinitarians actually hold modalistic beliefs. Based on this, we can infer that people, including theologians and scholars, instinctively understand and read their Bibles with the comprehension that God is unipersonal and reveals Himself modalistically.
To grasp the truth of modalistic monarchianism for yourself, I suggest reflecting on Luke 1:32-35 (especially the use of the future verb tenses and the conjunctive adverb "therefore") in consideration of passages such as Isaiah 42:8 and Isaiah 43:10-11. Also, reflect on how Romans 5:5-11 is in the context of self-sacrifice and how the Apostle Paul tells us that God the Father was emphatically demonstrating "His own love" in Christ. I also recommend the short article The Father Incarnated as a True Human Son.
Please note that I do not necessarily agree with everything written in the below books and articles. Just like all the other linked content on this website, I provide them solely for reference purposes.
The Oneness of God by David K. Bernard (This is basically the standard textbook for Oneness theology.)
The Case for Oneness Theology by Steven Ritchie (This ebook was available for $10 on Ritchie's website. I bought it just a few days before his website was suddenly taken down, so the timing might have been providential. This ebook is copyrighted and I provide it for reference purposes only so that Ritchie's work can remain available. If you are interested in purchasing this ebook or a paperback version, please try to contact email@example.com. I don't believe in "baptismal regeneration," so I can't recommend everything in this book, but in terms of Oneness theology, it find it helpful.)
Historical Books that Attest to Oneness
Truth Triumphs by Thomas Tomkinson in 1676 (see page 9 onward, especially pages 23-25)
I have archived some of the writings of Joyce Pollard. Joyce was a Modalistic Monarchian who passed away a few years ago. Her website is still available, but I created this archive as a backup. I spoke to Joyce several years ago by email and can attest to her great desire to understand God and His Word. Many of her opinions are the result of her own personal study. As such, she has some unique ideas that differ from other Modalistic Monarchian believers. Her opinion is worth reading.
I have archived some of the writings of Steven Ritchie from the Wayback Machine. He was a Oneness Pentecostal apologist who passed away a few years ago. I found his writings helpful, but his website was suddenly taken down in early 2023. I am not a Pentecostalist, and I disagree with his teaching on baptismal regeneration (i.e., salvation through water baptism), but he has contributed much to defending Oneness, and I think his writings should be available to people studying this topic.